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Why are contracts renegotiated periodically?

Question : Why are contracts renegotiated periodically? To lead employees into believing that they are individually unable to influence a change in the conditions causing their dissatisfaction To lead employees into believing that changing jobs would improve conditions more than collective bargaining would To take into account changes in the economy and in society To take into account changing goals and objectives of the government Question 2. Question : Who are responsible for making operational decisions for corporations? Managers hired by the shareholders through their elected board of directors Shareholders Investors and directors of the company The managing directors and the partners of the company Question 3. Question : __________ offers employees a method for countering employers? powers to unilaterally change employment conditions. Spillover Unionization Certification Picketing Question 4. Question : While labor is somewhat mobile, with workers able to move between employers as opportunities occur, it is less mobile than __________. shareholder wealth the company itself information financial capital Question 5. Question : What led to a decline in the Knights of Labor?s membership in 1893? The leaders? short-run perspective of satisfying day-to-day grievances but ignoring long-term issues Differences in opinion between the leaders and the general membership of the union The leaders? emphasis on the use of strikes rather than arbitration in the labor movement The conflict with the Roman Catholic Church over the rule that Catholics were prohibited from joining the Knights Question 6. Question : Which of the following is a provision under the Norris-LaGuardia Act? The act permitted the federal courts to issue injunctions against union activities The act did not allow federal employees to strike The act mandated that employers recognize a union of their employees The act forbade federal courts from enforcing yellow-dog contracts Question 7. Question : Which of the following is true of the American Federation of Labor? It advocated legislation only when it could not bargain successfully for its objectives. The leaders did not accept the economic system and aimed to replace it completely. It was a conglomeration of local unions rather than national-level unions. Membership was open to both skilled and unskilled workers. Question 8. Question : The __________ removed unions from Sherman Act jurisdiction and limited the use of federal injunctions. Norris-LaGuardia Act Taft-Hartley Act Landrum-Griffin Act Clayton Act Question 9. Question : The Knights of Labor was initially in conflict with the Roman Catholic Church because: it was a labor organization. its beliefs were inconsistent with Catholic dogma it was a secret society. it recognized the legitimacy of capitalism. Question 10. Question : What is the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service directed to emphasize? The encouragement of hot cargo clauses Services in contract negotiations Internal activities of employers covered by the Railway Labor Act The implementation of yellow-dog contracts Question 11. Question : __________ regulates internal activities of employers and unions covered by both Taft- Hartley and the Railway Labor Act. The Fair Labor Standards Act The Norris-LaGuardia Act The Landrum-Griffin Act Title VII of the Civil Service Reform Question 12. Question : The __________ Act was enacted following the largest incidence and the most time lost from work due to strikes of any year in U.S. history. Landrum-Griffin Norris-LaGuardia Railways Labor Taft-Hartley Question 13. Question : In states that have right-to-work laws in place, __________ are banned. mediation boards company unions agency shop clauses representation elections Question 14. Question : Which of the following statements is true of stewards? All stewards have experience representing employees before they assume their positions. They are the most junior members of the unit. They are activists; most are involved in other organizations outside their jobs. They prohibit participation in union activities. Points Received: 0 of 2 Question 15. Question : Members do not generally feel a need to be ?protected? from their union; on the contrary, it is __________ they worry about. lack of membership business agents mediators management Question 16. Question : Which of the following committees reviews members? grievances and negotiates with management over grievances and contract changes? Political action committee Negotiation committee Executive committee Benefits committee Question 17. Question : Which of the following acts requires local elections at least once every three years? Landrum-Griffin Act Wagner Act Norris-LaGuardia Act Taft-Hartley Act Question 18. Question : What is the major goal of national unions? Bringing the AFL-CIO under their wing Organizing an increasing number and share of the labor force Providing representation services to enhance management well-being Enhancing economic gains of the management Question 19. Question : Which of the following is true about the election of local officers? If the local represents several occupations, the numerically non-dominant occupation is likely to elect the officers. Where no occupation constitutes a majority, coalitions will develop depending on their perceptions of how local officers are achieving important outcomes for them. When the local union has contracts with several employers, and if the employees of one employer constitute a minority, they are likely to elect officers from that group. When the local union has contracts with several employers, and if there are a number of bargaining units, union officers would probably attempt to negotiate a no-employer agreement. Question 20. Question : NAFTA was negotiated by representatives of Canada, Mexico, and the United States during the __________ presidency. Bill Clinton Barack Obama George H. W. Bush, Sr. John F. Kennedy Question 21. Question : Since the founding of the __________, the core of the American labor movement has taken a consistently business-oriented approach. Knights of Labor Change to Win Federation American Federation of Labor National Labor Union Question 22. Question : __________ was predicted by involvement in union decision making, perceived lack of outside job opportunities, influence on the employer, being a woman, and being unskilled. No commitment Unilateral commitment to the union Unilateral commitment to the employer High dual commitment Question 23. Question : Which of the following is true of successor organizations? Where ownership changes but operations continue unchanged, the new owner must honor the existing contract but need not recognize the union. Where operations continue but, because of layoffs and/or new hires, the union lacks a majority, the employer has to strictly honor a contract. When a closed firm is reopened by new owners, the bargaining relationship continues if a majority of the employees worked for the former company and were in a represented unit. A firm that acquires or merges with another firm need not honor the existing contractual obligations. Question 24. Question : Which of the following best describes the degree of functional integration? The extent to which all potentially includable employees are required to provide the company?s output A group of employees with a substantially different community of interests that is allowed to establish a separate unit When a new facility is added to the bargaining unit or when an existing union in an employer wins representation rights for employees previously represented by another union Where there is no union shop or required agency fee, employees do not need to pay dues to the union to receive contractual benefits. Question 25. Question : Which of the following is true about successor organizations? Where ownership changes but operations continue unchanged, the new owner must honor the existing contract. A firm that merges with another firm assumes existing contractual obligations. Where operations continue but, because of layoffs and/or new hires, the union lacks a majority, the employer has an obligation to
honor a contract. When a closed firm is reopened by new owners, the bargaining relationship ceases to exist if a majority of the employees worked for the former company and were in a represented unit. Question 26. Question : Employees who are hired after __________ need to be recruited to join and get socialized to better understand and support the union?s goals. the negotiation of the neutrality pledges decertification elections craft severance unionization in the firm Question 27. Question : In determining appropriateness, the board considers carefully the __________ of the employees in the proposed unit. racial identity social status community of interests financial background Question 28. Question : Which of the following are classified as mandatory bargaining issues? Issues that have no direct impact on management Internal affairs of the union Issues that have a direct effect on union members? jobs Issues that are statutorily outlawed Question 29. Question : When is the supply of labor elastic? When an employer is a relatively small factor in a labor market When there are a lot of employment opportunities in the market When several employers hire the same type of labor simultaneously When the rate of unemployment is low in the market Question 30. Question : When is the derived demand for labor more inelastic? If a given type of labor is essential in the production of the final products If the market demand for the final products is elastic If the cost of labor is a significant part of the total product cost If the supply of materials is elastic Question 31. Question : What would an employer in a competitive market do when the cost of labor increases? Reduce cost on capital Change capital-labor mix Hire only unskilled workers Decrease its dependence on technology Question 32. Question : Which pay system refers to entitlements that individuals accrue from continuous employment? Scanlon plan Productive efficiency Benefit status seniority Gain-sharing plan Question 33. Question : Why are performance-based pay programs used less in unionized organizations? Lack of measurable performance criteria Demand for equal pay across functions Performance monitoring is difficult. Union jobs are more repetitive. Question 34. Question : According to a study across income distribution in Canada: employees whose earnings are in the top quintile lose from unionization. employees whose earnings are in the lowest quintile lose from unionization. average earning of the nonunion worker in the first four quintiles is higher than the nonunion worker. employees who are most advantaged in the labor market benefit the most. Question 35. Question : Which factor directly affects the health care cost of the employer? Standard-of-living of workforce Age and gender composition Ethnic background of workforce Manual labors and non-manual labor composition Question 36. Question : Which of the following is a method used to determine how much an individual will earn within a job? Shift differentials Land-and-step plans Piece rate systems Two-tier structures Question 37. Question : Which of the following statements is true about the corporatist environment following World War II? Wage rates were not associated with specific jobs. Rank-and-file employees had a lot of responsibility for workplace decision making. Supervisory control was substantially checked by the union compared to the drive system. It was not possible for a person to be temporarily transferred to a job with higher levels of responsibilities. Question 38. Question : According to the administrative rules issued by the Department of Labor in 2004: all employees, regardless of wage scales, were to receive overtime. all supervisors were reclassified as nonexempt. any job that was paid on an hourly basis was classified as non-exempt. jobs requiring primary manual work changed classifications. Question 39. Question : In firms where continuous-flow operations are most efficient or where product demand levels and heavy plant investment justify multi-shift operations, __________ specify work schedule assignment rules. grievance procedures maintenance of memberships management rights clauses contracts Question 40. Question : Under which of the following is renegotiating long-term contracts harder? When global competition is the least Where buyer or seller concentration in the industry is low among larger employers When there are periods of low inflation Where capacity utilization varies during the contract period Question 41. Question : Explain the concept of “duty to bargain.” Question 42. Question : Explain yellow-dog contracts. Question 43. Question : What are the three ways by which employees can become union members? Question 44. Question : List the factors that the NLRB considers to determine a bargaining unit.